CHRONOLOGY



1-199ce (conversion era): last revision: 14May96 lines: 476]
1ce: year 1 in Christian calendar, (a.d. = anno Domini), (see 525)
6: Herod Archelaus deposed by Augustus; Samaria, Judea and Idumea annexed
as province Iudaea under direct Roman administration, capital: Caesarea
6-?: Quirinius: Legate (Governor) of Syria, 1st Roman tax census of Iudaea
6-9-c12-15-26: Coponius - Ambivius - Rufus - Gratus: Roman Prefects of Iudaea
6-15: Annas (Ananus I) ben Seth: High Priest of Jerusalem Temple, appointed
by Quirinius; "House of Annas" produced 8 High Priests between 6ce and 65ce
6: Zealot's tax revolt: Judah of Gamala & Saddok the Pharisee [JA18.4,JW2.118]
7-26: brief period of peace (free of revolt & bloodshed) in Iudaea & Galilee
9-23: Wang Mang: overthrew Han Dynasty of China, attempted radical reforms
9: Arminius the Cheruscan destroys 3 Roman Legions near Rhine river of Germany
9: Hillel the Elder from Babylonia: b.30bce, "greatest Torah sage of Second
Temple period", founded Bet Hillel Torah school; at the request of a
student to teach the entire Torah "while standing on one foot" he replied:
"What is hateful to you, do not unto your neighbor. This is the entire
Torah, all the rest is commentary," i.e., "Go and study it."; "He who
magnifies his name destroys it; he who does not increase his knowledge
decreases it, and he who does not study deserves to die; and he who makes
worldly use of the crown of Torah shall waste away." [Encyclopedia Judaica]
14-37Mar16: Tiberius: b.42bce, Roman Emperor, "Son of Divine Augustus", in 19
expelled Septuagint (Greek Bible) missionaries from Rome but they soon
returned, in 37 dedicated Temple of Divus Augustus (Divine Augustus)
16-17: Eleazar: son of Annas (6-15), appointed High Priest of Jerusalem Temple
16: Germanicus (adopted by Tiberius in 4) suppressed Revolt of Arminius (9)
17: Titus Livius (Livy): b.59bce, Roman historian: "Ab Urbe Condita"; Loeb:14v
c17: Ovidius (Ovid): b.43bce, Roman Poet: Amores;Ars Amatoria;Metamor.;Loeb:6v
18-36: Joseph Caiaphas: son-in-law of Annas, appointed High Priest of Jerusa-
lem Temple by Prefect Valerius Gratus, deposed by Syrian Legate Vitellius
18-23: "Red Eyebrows" peasant revolt of China: Wang Mang assassinated
c19: Herod Antipas moved Galilean capital from Sepphoris to his new Tiberias
23-220: Later (Eastern) Han Dynasty of China, founded by Kuang-wu at Loyang
c24: Strabo: b.63bce, Greek geographer, wrote: "Geographica"; Loeb Classics 8v
c25: Assumption (Testament) of Moses: original Hebrew extant Latin (Apocrypha)
26-36: Pontius Pilate: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea)
27-34?: John the Baptist: "15th year of Tiberius" [Lk3:1-2], a Nazirite?
[Lk1:15], arrested & killed by Herod Antipas [Lk3:19-20], {When others too
joined the crowds about him, because they were aroused to the highest degree
by his sermons, Herod became alarmed. Eloquence that had sogreat an effect
on mankind might lead to some form of sedition, for it looked as if they
would be guided by John in everything that they did. Herod decided therefore
that it would be much better to strike first and be rid of him before his
work led to an uprising, than to wait for an upheaval, get involved in a
difficult situation and see his mistake.} [JA18.5.2, Loeb]
30: Marcus Manilius: b.10bce?, Roman poet, wrote: Astronomica; (Loeb Classics)
c30: Shammai the Elder: founded Bet Shammai Torah school; "Make your study
of the Torah a matter of established regularity, say little and do much, and
receive all men with a friendly countenance." [Encyc. Judaica: Avot,1,15]
26-36?: Jesus the Nazarene: < French: Jesus le Nazareen < Medieval Latin:Jesus
Nazarenus < Latin:IESVS NAZARENVS < Greek:Iesous ho Nazarenos (or Nazoraios)
< Aramaic: Yeshu haNatseraya > Hebrew Talmud:Yeshu haNotseri < Hebrew Bible:
Yeshua' < Yehoshua'; son of Mary, born 12-4 bce, bathed in Jordan to remove
sin by John the Baptist [Mk1:4-11], {But after John was handed over to the
authorities, Jesus went to Galilee, proclaiming the good word of God & say-
ing, "The time has come & the kingdom of God is approaching. Repent & trust
in the good word."} -Mk1:14-15(Gaus) || Mt4:12,17,Lk4:14-15,cf.Jn4:1-3,43-
46a; selected c12 apostles: 1.Simon < Greek < Aramaic:Shim'on, renamed Peter
< Gk:Petros < Ar:Kefa'=Rock, Bathesda fisherman, 1st Pope?(67), surname: Ar:
bar-Yona=Jonah's son? [Mt16:17] or Ar:bar-Yochanan=Johnson? [Jn1:42], also
called Satan! [Mk8:33,Mt16:23], Gospel of Peter? (65-150); 2. James < Gk:
Iakobos < Ar:Ya'qov, son of Zebedee & his brother: 3.John < Gk:Ioannes < Ar:
Yochanan, both fishermen, Gospel of John? (c100) disciple Jesus loved? only
eyewitness recorder? John the Elder?(c130), both renamed Boanerges < Hebrew:
bne-Regesh? bne-Rgaz? =angry sons?, "Thunder Brothers"; 4. Andrew < Gk:
Andreas, Peter's brother, Bethesda fisherman, disciple of John the Baptist
[Jn1:35,40]; 5. Philip < Gk:Philippos, from Bathesda; 6. Bartholomew < Gk:
Bartholomaios < Ar:bar-Talemai? =from Ptolemais?; 7. Matthew < Gk:Maththaios
< Ar:Matta'i, Tax Collector![Mt10:3], Gospel of Matthew? (c80); 8. Thomas <
Gk < Ar:T'oma'=twin, Gospel of Thomas? (65-150), Gnostic?; 9. James son of
Alpheus < Syriac:Chalfai; 10. Thaddeus? < Gk:Thaddaios < Ar:Taddai < Gk:
Theodotus? [Mk3:18,Mt10:3], or Judas son of James? [Lk6:16,Ac1:13], or Judas
not Iscariot?[Jn14:22] or Lebbeus < Ar:Libbai? 11.Simon the Canaanite? < Ar:
Qan'an=Zealot? [Lk6:15], or from Cana? [Jerome]; 12. Judas Iscariot < Gk:
Iskarioth < Hebrew='ish-Qeriyoth=man from Kerioth? or Skariotes < Latin:
sicarius=Judean Assassin?, a devil! [Jn6:70]; denied 3 times by his primary
Apostle Simon-Peter the "Rock", crucified by Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate
(26-36) for the Roman crime of INRI < Latin: IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM =
Iudaean King Nazarene Jesus [Gospel of Peter 4:2 (65-150), Mk15:26 (c70),
Mt27:37 (c80), Lk23:38 (c90), Jn19:19 (c100), Josephus' Jewish Antiquities
18.3.3 (94), Tacitus Annals 15.44 (c117,64)] on Friday 14 Nisan? [GPeter,Jn,
Mk14:2] or Friday 15 Nisan? [Mk,Mt,Lk], {& at 3 o'clock, Jesus cried out in
a loud voice "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani," [< Ar:'elahi 'elahi lema' shev-
aqtani < Heb:'eli 'eli lama 'azavtani=Ps22:1] which translates to "My God,
my God, why did you desert me?} -Mk15:34(Gaus) || Mt27:46 cf. Lk23:46,
Jn19:30; possible Friday 14 Nisan crucifixion dates: 7Apr30, 3Apr33, 30Mar36
36-37-c41: Marcellus - Marullus: Roman Prefects of Iudaea
36-37: Jonathan: Jerusalem High Priest, app. by Syrian Legate Vitellius
36-65?: oral period in Christianity between Jesus & Gospel of Mark, recorded
in Acts: Simon-Peter as leader? (1st Pope?), John, James, Andrew, Philip,
Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, James son of Alpheus, Simon the Zealot, Judas
son of James, Mary the mother of Jesus, Jesus' brothers, sisters, various
women [Ac1:13-14]; only c. 120 initial believers? [Ac1:15]; Judas Iscariot
commits "suicide" [Ac1:18-19]; Matthias voted replacement [Ac1:23-26]; 3000
new converts in 1 day? [Ac2:41]; Peter & John jailed for 1 night for causing
riots, converts increase to 5000? [Ac3]; Ananias and Sapphira die under
mysterious circumstances after not giving *all* their possessions [Ac5];
Aramaic [Ac1:19] and Greek [Ac6:1] in use early on; 7 Greeks added to 12
Apostles: Stephen, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, Nicolaus
[Ac6]; initially only 1 "church" (Greek ekklesia:G1577 most likely just an
assembly rather than a formal church), in Jerusalem; Paul of Tarsus, prior
to conversion, has Stephen martyred & the Jerusalem "church" destroyed, the
original Christians disperse throughout Judea & Samaria [Ac8:1ff]; Paul con-
verts to "Apostle to the Gentiles" and main activity of Christianity shifts
from "Jewish-Christians" of Judea and Galilee (Nazarenes & Ebionites) to
"Gentile-Christians" led by Paul & his Patroness [Rm16:2 prostatis] Phoebe;
Nazarenes (nazarenos:Mk1:24,10:47,14:67,16:6;Lk4:34,18:37vl,24:19;Jn18:5(D);
nazoraios:Mk10:47vl;Mt2:23,26:69vl,71;Lk18:37,24:19vl;Jn18:5,7,19:19;Ac2:22,
3:6,4:10,6:14,22:8,24:5,26:9); The Way (hodos:A9:2,18:25-26,19:9,23,24:14,
22); Christians (christianos:Ac11:26,26:28,1Pt4:16)
37-62?: Paul of Tarsus: Roman citizen?, tentmaker?, "conversion" in c37 [Gal
1:12,16,Ac9], in c40 went to Jerusalem (1st trip?) to meet Peter & James
[Gal1:18-20], in c47-48 on Cyprus with Barnabas [Acts13:4-12], in c49-50 in
Corinth (center of his mission to the Gentiles) [Acts18], in c57 last visit
to Jerusalem [Acts21], in c58 imprisoned in Caesarea [Acts23:23-26:32]; in
c60 imprisoned in Rome? [Acts28:16], in c62 martyred for treason in Rome?
[Col1:24,Eph3:13,2Tm4:6-8,1Clem5:5-7]; 10 traditional Pauline Letters: those
written by Paul of Tarsus: Galatians (48-55), 1st Thessalonians (51), Romans
(56-58), 1st Corinthians (56), 2nd Corinthians (57), Philippians (55-62);
those written by others: 2nd Thessalonians [warns of Christian Letter
forgery!] (c60), Colossians (c60), Philemon (c60), Ephesians (c80)
37-41Jan24: Gaius Caligula: b.12, Roman Emperor, declared himself God, assass-
inated, appointed King "Herod" Agrippa I (37-44) of Philip & Lysanias' tetr-
archies, in 39 exiled Herod Antipas to Gaul on charges of secret Parthian
alliance, in 40 added Herod Antipas' Galilee & Perea tetrarchy to Agrippa I
37: Seneca the Elder: b.55bce?, Roman rhetor: Controversiae,Suasoriae; Loeb:2v
38: Greek-Jewish riots in Alexandria [Philo: Flaccus 41-54, E-to-G 132-137]
39-40: Greek-Jewish riots in Antioch [Malalas Chronographia 10.315]
39-40: Jewish protest at Ptolemais [JA18.263,JW2.192;Philo E-to-G 222-249]
c40: 4 Maccabees: written in Greek in Alexandria (Septuagint)
41-54Oct13: Claudius: b.10bce, Roman Emperor, poisoned by wife Agrippina,
appointed King Herod of Chalcis (41-48), Agrippa I's brother, added Judea &
Samaria to Agrippa I, annexed Britain (43-406), founded Londinium (London),
persecuted Druids, in 49 expelled Septuagint missionaries: {Since the Jews
constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus {{Christ?}}, he
expelled them from Rome.} [Suetonius,de Vita Caesarum,Claudius XXV.4,Loeb]
44: James brother of John executed by sword by Agrippa I [Acts12:1-3]
44-46: C. Cuspius Fadus: Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea),
in 44 beheaded Theudas for parting Jordan (like Exodus) [JA20.97,Acts5:36],
in c.45 crucified Jacob and Simon sons of Judah of Gamala (6) [JA20.5.2]
45: C. Julius Phaedrus: b.15bce?, Roman fables; (Loeb Classics)
45: Philo Judaeus of Alexandria: b.30bce, Jewish philosopher and hellenizer,
tried to unify Greek and Hebrew philosophy; (Loeb Classics: 12 volumes)
46-48: Tiberius Julius Alexander: Roman Procurator of Iudaea, an apostate Jew
47-59: Ananias ben Nedebaeus: Jerusalem High Priest, app. by Herod of Chalcis
48-93: Agrippa II: King of Judea, ruled from Chalcis (48-52) & Iturea (52-93)
48-52: Ventidius Cumanus: Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea),
in 50 Passover riot in Jerusalem, 20-30,000 killed [JA20.5.3,JW2.12.1]
48-49?: Council of Apostles & Elders: 1st Christian Council?, [Gal2:1-10,Ac15]
also Incident at Antioch [Gal2:11-18] where Paul publicly condemned Peter
c50: Peshitta: translation begun, Hebrew OT->Syriac Aramaic, (Greek NT in 400)
c50: Ascension of Isaiah: original written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
c50: Barthelemy Greek Minor Prophets: R943, pb.1953, unknown translation type
c50: Hero of Alexandria invented crude steam engine: "aeolipile"
c50: early Gnostics?: Simon Magus of Samaria, Simonianism [Acts8:9-24,Petrine
Acts,EH2.13,...]; Nicolaus of Antioch, Nicolaitans? [Acts6:5,Rev2:6,15,
EH3.29.1-3,...]; Menander disciple of Simon Magus; Basilides of Alexandria
(d.160?) and Satorninus of Antioch (d.120?) disciples of Menander; ...
52-c60: M. Antonius Felix: Roman Procurator of Iudaea, a Greek freedman, in
c55 massacred "Egyptian Prophet" & c.30,000 unarmed Jews doing Exodus reen-
actment [Ac21,JW2.261,JA20.169], in c58 crushed Jewish revolt in Caesarea
54-68Jun9: Nero: b.37, Roman Emperor, last of Julio-Claudian Dynasty, in 59
killed mother Agrippina, in 62 killed wife Octavia, married Poppaea Sabina,
in 64Jul18 "Great Fire", in 65 ordered suicides of poets Seneca the Younger
(Dialogi, Naturales quaestiones; Loeb:11v) & Lucan (Bellum Civile;Loeb:1v),
in 66 entered Olympic Games & won, freed Greece from Roman administration,
ordered suicide of courtier Petronius (Satyricon;Loeb:1v), in 68Jun9
committed suicide, resurrected as "Nero redivivus"? (Revelation's 666?) ...
58: Ming-Ti: Chinese Emperor, introduced Buddhism to China
58-170: 3rd Corinthians: by Paul of Tarsus? original in Greek (Armenian Bible)
c60-62-64: Porcius Festus - Lucceius Albinus: Roman Procurators of Iudaea
62: Jesus son of Ananias proclaimed "...a voice against Jerusalem..."[JW6.300]
62: Persius: b.34, Roman Stoic satirist, wrote: "Satirae"; (Loeb Classics)
62: {Being therefore this kind of person [i.e., a heartless Sadducee], Ananus
{II} thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died &
Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting [literally, "sanhedrin"] of
judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah, James
by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had transgressed
the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.} [JA20.9.1,Marginal Jew,p.57]
64-66: Gessius Florus: Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea),
a Greek from Asia Minor, raided Temple setting off Jewish rebellion of 66-73
64Jul18: Great Fire of Rome: Nero accused Christians: {Therefore to squelch
the rumor {{that he had started the Great Fire of Rome}}, Nero created
scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom the common
people called "Christians," [a group] hated for their abominable crimes.
Their name comes from Christ, who, during the reign of Tiberius, had been
executed by the procurator Pontius Pilate. Suppressed for the moment, the
deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which
originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of
horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge and
are fervently cultivated.} [Tacitus Annals 15.44;Marginal Jew;Meier;p.89-90]
65-150: Gospel redaction and compilation stage of Christianity, post-Paul,
center of Christianity shifted to Antioch & Rome ("New Babylon" of 1Pt5:13)
c65: Q: (German: Quelle=Source), hypothetical Greek text used in Matt & Luke
65-150: Gospel of Peter, Dialogue of the Savior (Complete Gospels)
65-150: Didache: Instructions of the Apostles, pub. 1883 (Apostolic Fathers)
65-150: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224 fragments: pub. 1914, {When the scholars a[nd
Pharise]es and priests observe[ed hi]m, they were indignant [because he re-
clined <at table> in the com]pany of sin[ners]. But Jesus overheard [them
and said,] Those who are we[ll don't need a doctor.]} -5(SV) || Mk2:15-17;
Mt9:10-13;Lk5:29-32 [Ref: The Complete Gospels, 1992, ISBN:0-944344-30-5]
65-150: Gospel of Thomas: based on Q?, pub. 1959, Greek originals: Papyrus
Ox. 1,654-5; {Jesus said, "If your leaders say to you, 'Look, the <Father's>
imperial rule is in the sky,' then the birds of the sky will precede you. If
they say to you, 'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you. Rather,
the <Father's> imperial rule is within you and it is outside you. When you
know yourselves, then you will be known, and you will understand that you
are children of the living Father. But if you do not know yourselves, then
you live in poverty, and you are the poverty."} -Th3(SV), cf. Mk13:21-23;
Mt24:23-28;Lk17:20-25;Jb28:12-14,20-22(LXX);Bar3:29-32,35-37;Dt30:11-14(LXX)
;Sir1:1-3 {His disciples said to him, "When will the rest for the dead take
place, and when will the new world come?" He said to them, "What you are
looking forward to has come, but you don't know it."} -Th51(SV), cf. Mt11:28
-29;DSav65-68;Sir51:26-27,6:23-31;Lk17:20-21;Mk9:12-13;Mt17:11;2Tm2:17-18
{His disciples said to him, "When will the <Father's> imperial rule come?"
"It will not come by watching for it. It will not be said, 'Look, here!' or
'Look, there!' Rather, the Father's imperial rule is spread out upon the
earth, and people don't see it."} -Th113(SV) || Lk17:20-21; cf. Mary4:4-5;
Mk13:21;Mt24:23;Lk17:23 [Ref: The Complete Gospels, ISBN:0-944344-30-5]
65-175: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840 fragments: pub. 1908, {In response the savior
said to him: "I feel sorry for the blind who can't see. You bathe in these
stagnant waters where dogs & pigs wallow day & night.} -2:7(SV) cf. Mt7:6;
Jn9:40-41; 2Pt2:22; Rv22:15 [Ref: The Complete Gospels, ISBN:0-944344-30-5]
65-175: Papyrus Egerton 2 (Unknown Gospel) fragments: pub. 1935/87, in Greek
from Palestine, one of the oldest extant Christian texts (c175), {Turning
to the rulers of the people, <Jesus> made this statement: "Pore over the
<sacred> writings. You imagine that in them there is life to be had. They do
indeed give evidence on my behalf."} -EgerG1:2(SV) || Jn5:39 (Comp. Gospels)
65-250: Papyrus Fayum (P. Vindob. G. 2325) fragments: pub. 1887, {(He said,
after) eating according to custom, "Al[l of you on this] night will fall
away, [according to] scripture: 'I will strike the [shepherd and the] sheep
will be scattered.'" [When] Peter said, "Even if all, [yet not I," (Jesus
said) "Before] the cock crows twice [today three times] you will deny me."}
cf. Mk14:26-31;Mt26:30-35;Lk22:31-34 [Ref: Anchor Bible Dictionary, 1992]
65-350: "Jewish-Christian Gospels": 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites
and 7 fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek; 36 fragments of Gospel
of the Nazarenes in Aramaic; [Ref: NT Apocrypha, W. Schneemelcher, vol. 1]
66-428: Armenian Arsacid Dynasty: founded by Trdat the Parthian, appr. by Nero
66-73: Roman-Jewish War: final destruction of Second Temple (Herod's Temple)
{What more than all else incited them [the Jews] to the [1st Roman] war was
an ambiguous oracle ... found in their sacred scriptures, to the effect that
at that time 1 from their country would become ruler of the world. This they
understood to mean someone of their own race, & many of their wise men went
astray in their interpretation of it. The oracle, however, in reality signi-
fied the sovereignty of Vespasian who was proclaimed Emperor on Jewish soil}
[Josephus' JW 6.312-13, Crossan, Who Killed Jesus?, p44, ISBN:0-06-061479-X]
66: Roman Legate of Syria Cestius Gallus forced to retreat from Iudaea
67: Roman General Vespasianus (Vespasian) conquered Galilee
c67: Peter: 1st Pope?, 1st bishop of Antioch?, martyred (crucified?) in Rome?
c67-c78,c79-c91: Popes Linus (2Tm4:21?) - Anacletus ("blameless?" Titus 1:7?)
68: Qumran (Essenes?) (Dead Sea Scrolls - 1949) community destroyed by Rome
68Jun-69Jan-69Apr-69Dec: Galba-Otho-Vitellius: Roman Emperors, all assassinat.
69-79Jun23: Vespasianus: b.9, Roman Emperor, appointed by Senate, founded
Flavian Dynasty (69-96), built Colosseum, quelled Rome & Jerusalem revolts,
in 70 July eldest son Titus reclaimed Roman Antonia fortress in Jerusalem,
in August conquered Jerusalem, destroyed Temple; in 71 built Arch of Titus,
in 73 Jewish fortress at Masada fell, residents committed mass suicide
69: "Nero redivivus" martyred in Galatia [ABD,Tac.Hist.2.8]
70-361: special annual tax of 2 drachmas levied on all Jews of the Roman
Empire since Jupiter Capitolinus (God of Rome) had defeated God of Jerusalem
{Besides other taxes, that on the Jews was levied with the utmost rigour,
and those were prosecuted who without publicly acknowledging that faith yet
lived as Jews, as well as those who concealed their origin and did not pay
the tribute levied upon their people. {{These were doubtless Christians,
whom the Romans commonly confounded with the Jews.}} I recall being present
in my youth when the person of a man ninety years old was examined before
the procurator and a very crowded court, to see whether he was circumcised.}
[Suetonius, de Vita Caesarum, Book VII, Domitian, XII.2, Loeb Classics]
70-640: Sanhedrin (High Court) period of Judaism: rise of house of Hillel (9)
70-132: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Jabneh (Jamnia),
begun by Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai to 'perform commandments & teach Torah'
c70: Gospel of Mark: Peter's interpreter? [1Pt5:13], written in Rome?, ends
unexpectedly at Mk16:8, original ending apparently lost, endings added c400
c70: "Signs Gospel": hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to prove
Jesus is Messiah; [Complete Gospels]: Opening: Jn1:6-7,19-49; in Galilee: Jn
2:1-12a,4:46b-54,21:1-14,6:1-14,15b-25; in Jerusalem: Jn11:1-45,9:1-8,5:2-9;
Culmination: Jn11:47-53,2:14-19,12:37-40; Passion Prelude: Jn12:1-8,12-15;
Passion: Jn18:1-19:42; Resurrection: Jn20:1-22; Closing: Jn20:30-31
71: "The Jewish War": (JW), by Josephus (c100), written in Greek
c74: Publius Annius Florus: Roman historian; (Loeb Classics)
79-81Sep13: Titus: b.39, Roman Emperor, Vespasianus' eldest son
79: Pliny the Elder: b.23, Roman scholar, victim of Mt. Vesuvius eruption on
August 24 that destroyed Pompeii & Herculaneum, wrote of Essenes; Loeb:10v
80: Terentius Maximus of Parthia claimed to be "Nero redivivus" [ABD]
c80: Gospel of Matthew: most popular in early church, based on Mark and Q
c80: "Council of Jamnia" said to have canonized Jewish Scripture [discredited]
81-96Sep18: Domitianus: b.51, Roman Emperor, Vespasianus' youngest son, "Nero
redivivus?", proclaimed himself "Lord & God", stabbed to death by wife ...
88: 2nd "Nero redivivus" of Parthia: "Even now his subjects wish he were
alive, and most men believe that he is." [ABD,Dio Chrysostom Or.21.10]
c90: Gospel of Luke: based on Mark & Q, also Acts - same author, style of LXX
c90: Josephus claimed 22 Jewish books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns [AA1.8]
c91-c101: Pope Clement I: Phil4:3?, wrote to Corinth in c95: "1 Clement" (AF)
{...Clement's Bible is the Old Testament, to which he refers repeatedly as
Scripture (graphe), quoting it with more or less exactness. Clement also
makes occasional reference to certain words of Jesus; though they are
authoritative for him, he does not appear to enquire how their authenticity
is ensured. In two of the three instances that he speaks of remembering 'the
words' of Christ or of the Lord Jesus, it seems that he has a written record
in mind, but he does not call it a 'gospel'. He knows several of Paul's
epistles, and values them highly for their content; the same can be said of
the Epistle to the Hebrews, with which he is well acquainted. Although these
writings obviously possess for Clement considerable significance, he never refers to them as authoritative Scripture'.} [Canon NT,Metzger,p.43]
94: "Jewish Antiquities": by Josephu in Aramaic, trans. to Greek, Testimonium
Flavianum: {At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a doer
of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with pleasure.
And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek ori-
gin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among
us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not
cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians (named
after him) has not died out.} [JA18.3.3 Meier redaction, Marginal Jew, p.61]
c95: Quintilianus: b.35?, Roman rhetor, wrote: "Institutio oratoria"; Loeb:4v
96-98Jan25: Nerva: b.35?, Roman Emperor, law reform, adopted successor Trajan
c96: Statius: b.40?, Roman poet, wrote: Silvae, Thebais, Achilleis; Loeb:2v
97: Wang Ch'ung: b.27, Chinese Confucianist
98-117Aug8: Trajanus: b.53?, Roman Emperor, selected by Nerva, Empire reached
maximum size; Roman Arch Aqueduct at Segovia, Spain; annexed Dacia (Romania
106-1453), Arabia (106-c630), Armenia (114-162), Mesopotamia (114-115);
revolt in 115-117 when Procurator Lucius Quietus provoked Kitos War in
Jerusalem, spread to Libya, Cyrenaica, Egypt, Cyprus, Mesopotamia, ended
Roman eastward expansion, Parthia restored, Egyptian Jewry declined ...
c100: Gospel of John: only eyewitness? the disciple Jesus loved? Gnostic? ...
c100: Odes of Solomon: Gnostic?, Greek or Syriac?, ref by John? (Apocrypha)
c100: Epistle of Barnabas: Christian exegesis of LXX (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
c100: 2 Clement: an old sermon but not by Clement (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
c100: 2 Esdras (Vg=EsdraeIV): v14:45 claims 24 Jewish books (Vulgate,Peshitta)
c100: Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch in Syriac; 3 Baruch in Greek) (Peshitta)
c100: Paralipomena of Jeremiah: (4 Baruch), written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
c100: Masoretes at Tiberias compile Masora (MT), standard Jewish Scriptures
c100: Apollonius of Tyana: neo-Pythagorean, raised dead, pred. Domitian's end
c100: Testaments 12 Patriarchs:Hebrew-Aramaic frags @Qumran1,4(Armenian Bible)
c100: Epistle to the Laodiceans: [cf.Col4:16] ??? (Vulgate Fuldensis, see 546)
c100: Chang Cheng: Chinese astronomer, built 1st seismoscope
c100: Flavius Josephus: b.37?, Jewish general, turncoat, historian, hellenist:
71: JW=Jewish War; c90: AA=Against Apion; 94: JA=Jewish Antiquities; Loeb10v
100-150: Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Infancy
Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark) (Complete Gospels)
c101-c109-c116-c125-c136: Popes Evaristus - Alexander - Sixtus I - Telesphorus
c104: Martialis: b.40?, Roman epigrammist; (Loeb Classics: 2 volumes)
c105: Ts'ai Lun: of China "invents" paper, monopoly held till 751 [earliest
extant papers are c.100bce from Sian (1957) & 49bce from Sinkiang (1933)]
c110: Ignatius: 3rd bishop of Antioch, martyred in Rome, letters subjected to
heavy Christian forgery, advocated bishop: "careful not to oppose the bishop
, in order that we may be obedient to God. ... regard the bishop as the Lord
himself." [IEph5-6]; "godly bishop ... presiding in the place of God ...
Lord did nothing without the Father, ... so you must not do anything without
the bishop ... be subject to the bishop ... as Jesus Christ in the flesh was
to the Father," [IMag2,6-7,13]; "subject to the bishop as to Jesus Christ,
... respect the bishop, who is a model of the Father," [ITr2-3]; "follow the
bishop, as Jesus Christ followed the Father, ... one who honors the bishop
has been honored by God;" [ISmy8-9]; rejected Sabbath: "no longer keeping
the Sabbath but living in accordance with the Lord's Day," [IMag9.1] (AF)
114: Lucius Apuleius: Roman satirist: The Golden Ass, Metamorphoses; Loeb:3v
c114: Pliny the Younger: b.61?, Roman consul, recorded Christians as "singing
hymns to Christ as to a god" <... Christo quasi deo> [Letter 10.96]; Loeb:2v
115: Lucian: Gk satirist: Passing of Peregrinus (satire of Christians); Loeb8v
117-138Jul10: Hadrianus: b.76, Roman Emperor, built wall across Britain, tried
to build Jupiter Capitolinus Temple on Jerusalem Temple ruins causing Jewish
Bar Kokhba Revolt (132-135), Judea and Jerusalem erased from maps, southern
Syria renamed "Palaestina" (coined by Herodotus)
c117: Publius Cornelius Tacitus: b.55?, Roman Historian: "Annals"; (Loeb:5v)
c120: Plutarch: b.46?, Greek historian, wrote 200+: "Parallel Lives"; Loeb:27v
c125: Papyrus 52: oldest extant NT fragment, p.1935, parts of Jn18:31-33,37-38
c125: Shepherd of Hermas: written in Rome (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
c125: Quadratus: bishop of Athens [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,Eerdmans,v.8]
125-225: "Christian Apologists" writings against Roman Paganism by: Quadratus
(c125), Aristides of Athens (c145), Justin Martyr (165), Tatian (172),
Melito (177), Apollinaris (c180), Athenagoras (c180), Theophilus (180),
also Epistle to Diognetus (150-225?) in Apostolic Fathers
c130: "Gospel of Basilides": a 24 book commentary?, Gnostic?, lost
c130: Papias: bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor, wrote: "Expositions of
the Sayings of the Lord", lost, widely quoted, see Eusebius (340) (AF)
c130: Aquila of Pontus: Roman convert to Christianity then to Judaism, student
of Rabban Gamaliel, compiled literal Greek OT translation in Jabneh (Jamnia)
135: R. Akiva ben Joseph of Judea: b.50?, executed by the Romans for teaching
Torah in public after revolt, flesh was torn from his body with iron combs,
coined "thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself" as 1st principle of Torah
138-161Mar7: Antoninus Pius: b.86, Roman Emperor, selected by Hadrian, in 145
dedicated Temple of Divus Hadrianus (Divine Hadrian)
138-165: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Usha, Galilee
c138-c142-c155-c166: Popes Hyginus - Pius I - Anicetus
c140: Juvenalis: b.60?, greatest Roman Satirist; (Loeb Classics with Persius)
c140: Apocalypse of Peter: written in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]
c140: Suetonius: b.70, Roman historian: "de Vita Caesarum"; Loeb Classics: 2v
c140: Marcion of Pontus: 1st Radical Paulinist?, inspired by Luke 5:36,
claimed Jesus rejected "Law & Prophets" (OT), claimed to have recovered lost
original Gospel from Luke, promoted Canon of heavily edited Gospel of Luke
and 10 Pauline Letters and his own "Antitheses"; "Western" Gospel text-type
149: Hsu Shen: wrote Shou wen chieh tzu, Chinese dictionary of 10,516 symbols
c150: Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria: Greek astronomer, "Geocentric"; (Loeb)
c150: Gospel of the Egyptians: Coptic translation of orig. Greek (Nag Hammadi)
c150: Nagarjuna founded Madhyamika (Mahayana Buddhism) school in India
c150: "Teachings of Silvanus": Gnostic; v99.13: Christ has a single
hypostasis [hidden spiritual reality]; v102.3: Christ is incomprehensible
with respect to his hypostasis (Nag Hammadi)
c150: "Western Reviser" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce "Western"
version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 & Codex Bezae (D)
{Who it was that was responsible for the additional information concerning
the apostolic age or where it came from is entirely unknown. According to F.
G. Kenyon, "What one would like to suppose (but for which there is no exter-
nal evidence), is that one of St. Paul's companions transcribed Luke's book
[Acts] (perhaps after the author's death), and inserted details of which he
had personal knowledge, & made other alterations in accordance with his own
taste in a matter on which he was entitled to regard himself as having auth-
ority equal to that of Luke."} [Textual Comm., Metzger, p272, 3-438-06010-8]
c150: Papyrus Chester Beatty 6: R963, Greek Num 5:12-36:13, Deut 1:20-34:12
c150: Ts'an T'ung Ch'i: by Wei Po-yang of China, earliest extant alchemy
c155: Montanus: of Pepuza, Phrygia; claimed to be Paraclete of John 14:16
c156: Chang Tao-ling: b.34?, Chinese Taoist, left clothes, ascended to heaven
c160: Polycarp: bishop of Smyrna, martyred at 86, wrote "Letter of Polycarp
to the Philippians" c.110; "Martyrdom of Polycarp"; both in Greek (AF)
161-180Mar17: Marcus Aurelius: b.121, Roman Emperor, selected by Pius, Stoic
philosopher, wrote: Greek "Meditationes" & Latin "Letters" (Loeb); Parthia
invaded Armenia: 162; Great Plague: 164-180; Boucholoi Revolt of Egyptian
Delta: 172; Revolt of Syrian Governor Cassius: 175; German Revolt: 178-188
165-180: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Shefaram, Galilee
180: Theophilus: bishop of Caesarea [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,Eerdmans,v.8]
180: Gaius: b.110?, Roman jurist, wrote: "Institutiones": summary of Roman Law
c180: Athenagoras: Athenian philosopher convert to Christianity [ANF,v.2]
c180: Apollinaris: bishop of Hierapolis [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,v.8]
184-204: Yellow Turban Rebellion of China: contributed to final Han overthrow
c185: Theophilus: 7th bishop of Antioch, convert from paganism [ANF,v.2]
189-198: Pope Victor I: 1st Latin Pope, called Council in 190 to determine
"official" new date of "Easter" but failed, excommunicated Eastern churches
that continued to observe "Easter" on Biblical Nisan 14 "Quartodeciman"
c190: Serapion: 9th bishop of Antioch, disputed Gospel of Peter (65) [EH6.12]
c190: Hsu Yo: Chinese mathematician, wrote: Shu Shu Chi I
c190: Heracleon: disciple of Gnostic Valentinus, 1st commentary on Gospel of
John (cited by Origen & Clement), wrote: "Tripartite Tractate" (Nag Hammadi)
193Jan-Mar-Jun: Pertinax - Didius Julianus: Roman Emperors, both assassinated
193-211Feb4: Septimius Severus: b.146, Roman Emperor, persecuted Christians...
196: Polycrates: b.125?, bishop of Ephesus, supported Quartodecimans in
"Easter" controversy versus Pope Victor in 190 [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,v.8]
199-217: Pope Zephyrinus; also 1st antipope Natalius? [Ecc. Hist. 5.28.8-12]
[200-640ce (conversion era): last revision: 14May96 lines: 536]
c200: Theodotion: Greek convert to Judaism, made revision of LXX (Septuagint)
c200: Papyrus 32: J. Rylands Library: Titus 1:11-15;2:3-8
c200: Papyrus 64 (+67): Mt3:9,15;5:20-22,25-28;26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33
c200: Sahidic Coptic cop(sa) Bible translations written in Alexandria
c200: Hypostasis [hidden spiritual reality] of the Archons (Nag Hammadi)
c200: Valentinian Exposition: 24.23: Son is hypostasis of Father (Nag Hammadi)
c200: Corpus Hermeticum: Alexandrian quasi-Neo-Platonism [ISBN:0-87773-338-4]
c200: Papyrus 66: 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text-types: Jn
1:1-6:11,35-7:52;8:12-14:26,29-30;15:2-26;16:2-4,6-7,10-20:20,22-23,25-21:9
c200: Papyrus 75: Bodmer 14-15, Luke & John, earliest extant Luke, c. Vatican-
us; Lk3:18-22,33-4:2,34-5:10,37-6:4,10-7:32,35-39,41-43,46-9:2,4-17:15,19-
18:18; 22:4-24:53; Jn1:1-7:52;8:12-11:45,48-57;12:3-13:1,8-9;14:8-30;15:7-8
c200: Papyrus 46: 2nd Chester Beatty, "Alexandrian" text-type: Rm5:17-6:3,5-14
;8:15-25,27-35,37-9:32;10:1-11:22,24-33,35-15:9,11-16:27;Hb1:1-9:16,18-10:20
,22-30,32-13:25;1Cr1:1-9:2,4-14:14,16-15:15,17-16:22;2Cr1:1-11:10,12-21,23-
13:13;Ep1:1-2:7,10-5:6,8-6:6,8,20-24;Gl1:1-8,10-2:9,12-21;3:2-29;4:2-18,20-5
:17,20-6:8,10-18;Ph1:1,5-15,17-28,30-2:12,14-27,29-3:8,10-21;4:2-12,14-23;Cl
1:1-2,5-13,16-24,27-2:19,23-3:11,13-24;4:3-12,16-18;1Th1:1,9-2:3;5:5-9,23-28
c201: Claudius Galen: b.130?, Greek Anatomist: On the Natural Faculties (Loeb)
c202: Irenaeus: 2nd bishop of Lyons, supported Quartodecimans in Easter contr-
oversy versus Pope Victor in 190, wrote "Against Heresies" in Greek (lost),
extant Latin; "... they have apostatized in their opinions from Him who is
God, & imagined that they have themselves discovered more than the apostles,
by finding out another god; & that the apostles preached the Gospel still
somewhat under the influence of Jewish opinions, but that they themselves
are purer, & more intelligent, than the apostles." [AH3.12.12,ANF,v.1]
210-240: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Sepphoris Galilee
211-217Apr8-218Jun8: Caracallus - Macrinus: Roman Emperors, both assassinated
212: Constitutio Antoniana: Civis Romanus sum!, all free men Roman citizens
217-222-230-235-236-250Jan20: Popes Callistus I-Urban I-Pontian-Anterus-Fabian
217-235: antipope Saint Hippolytus: bishop of Rome, "Logos" sect [ANF,v.5]
217: Judah Ha-Nasi: b.135?, "Rabbi", codified Mishnah (c220)
217: Gaius (Caius): presbyter of Rome, anti-Montanist, wrote "Dialogue against
Proclus", rejected Gospel of John, Hebrews, Rev. [Canon NT,Metzger; ANF,v.5]
217: Clement: b.153, bishop of Alexandria, pagan philosopher convert, cited
Alexandrian NT text-type & Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians,
wrote: "Exhortations", "Paedagogus", "Stromata" (Loeb Classics) [ANF,v.2]
218-222Mar11: Heliogabalus (Elagabalus): b.204, Roman Emperor, boy priest
promoted Syrian sun-god Elagabal & meteorite brought to Rome, assassinated
220-589: 6 Dynasties period of China: capital Nanjing
220-264: 3 Kingdoms period of China: Wu (south), Wei (north), Shu (west)
220: Goths invaded Asia Minor & Balkans
c220: Minucius Felix: Roman Christian lawyer, wrote in Latin [ANF,v.4]
c220: Mishnah: Torah teachings, Halakhah (Oral Law), Hillel/Akiva/Meir/Judah
c220: Tertullian: b.160?, Carthaginian lawyer, Christian convert in c193 then
to Montanism (c155) in c207, "Father of Latin Church", coined "Trinity",
"New Testament", 2-natures doctrine (Jesus fully human & divine), advocated
exclusion of women from priesthood, wrote: Father, Son, Holy Spirit are 1
substantia yet 3 persona, cited rumor Jesus son of prostitute [Spectaculis
30.6], cited "Western" text-type; (Loeb Classics, Latin) [ANF,v.3-4]
222-235Mar18: Alexander Severus: Roman Emperor, halted Christian persecutions
c225: Papyrus 45: 1st Chester Beatty, Gospels (Caesarean), Acts (Alexandrian):
Mt20:24-32;21:13-19;25:41-26:39; Mk4:36-40;5:15-26,38-6:3,16-25,36-50;7:3-15
,25-8:1,10-26,34-9:9,18-31;11:27-12:1,5-8,13-19,24-28; Lk6:31-41,45-7:7;9:26
-41,45-10:1,6-22,26-11:1,6-25,28-46,50-12:12,18-37,42-13:1,6-24,29-14:10,17-
33; Jn10:7-25,30-11:10,18-36,42-57; Ac4:27-36;5:10-21,30-39;6:7-7:2,10-21,32
-41,52-8:1,14-25,34-9:6,16-27,35-10:2,10-23,31-41;11:2-14,24-12:5,13-22;13:6
-16,25-36,46-14:3,15-23;15:2-7,19-27,38-16:4,15-21,32-40;17:9-17
c225: Papyrus 967: Chester Beatty 9, Greek Ezekiel 11:25-end, c. Vaticanus
226-241: Ardashir I: Persian Emperor, founded Sasanian Empire of Persia (226-
642), conquered Mesopotamia in 230, Zoroastrianism state religion ...
230-258: Council of Rome: Bishop Demetrius of Alexandria condemns Origen (253)
235-238Jun: Maximinus: Roman Emperor, ended Christian schism by deporting Pope
Pontian & antipope Saint Hippolytus to Sardinia where they died, assassinat.
238-244: Gordianus III: Roman Emperor at age 13, assassinated
240-640: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Tiberias, Galilee
240-258: Council of Carthage: early Christian council
c240: Commodianus: Early Christian Church Father [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,v.4]
241-272: Shapur I: Persian Emperor, captured Asia Minor, Syria, Valerian (260)
244-249: Philippus the Arabian: Roman Emperor, celebrated 1,000th anniversary
of Rome in 248, defeated & killed by Decius
249-251-253-253: Decius - Gallus (assa.) - Aemilianus (assa.): Roman Emperors
249: Wang Pi: b.226, Taoist commentaries on I Ching, Lao-tzu, Chuang-tzu
c250: Diophantus of Alexandria: wrote first book on algebra: "Arithmetica"
c250: Mandeans: followers of John the Baptist, began compilation of "Ginza"
c250: Liu Hui: Chinese mathematician, wrote: Hai Tao Suan Ching
c250: Papyrus 72: Bodmer 5-11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text-type: Nativity
of Mary; 3Cor; Odes of Solomon 11; Jude 1-25; Melito's Homily on Passover;
Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas; Ps33,34; 1Pt1:1-5:14; 2Pt1:1-3:18;
c250: Papyrus Chester Beatty: #5:R962: Gn8:13-9:2,24:13-46:33,Enoch91-105;
#7: I8:18-19:13,38:14-45:5,54:1-60:22; #8: Jr4:30-5:24;
#10: Dn1-12:13(+Add),Bel4-39,Sus5-end,Esther1:1a-8:6(+Add)
250-400: Tosefta: supplements to the Mishnah (c220)
250-350: Apostolic Constitutions of Orthodox Christianity: #2.36 (p.413):
Thou shalt observe the Sabbath, on account of Him who ceased from His work
of creation, but ceased not from His work of providence: it is a rest for
meditation of the law, not for idleness of the hands. #6.19 (p.458): For He
nowhere has dissolved the law, as Simon <Magus> pretends, but fulfilled it;
for He says: [Mt5:18,17]. #7.23 (p.469): But keep the Sabbath, & the Lord's
day festival; because the former is the memorial of the creation, & the
latter of the resurrection. But there is 1 only Sabbath to be observed by
you in the whole year, which is that of our Lord's burial, on which men
ought to keep a fast, but not a festival. Approved at Orthodox Synod of
Trullo in 692 [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,v.7,Eerdmans]
251Mar-253-254-257-258Aug6: Popes Cornelius - Lucius I - Stephen I - Sixtus II
251Mar-258: antipope Novatian: no forgiveness for sins after baptism [ANF,v.5]
253-260: Valerianus: Roman Emperor, notorious persecutor of Christians, in 258
"Valerian's Massacre" executed Pope Sixtus II, antipope Novatian, Bishop
Cyprian of Carthage, & all other Christian Bishops, Priests & Deacons
253: Origen: b.185?, used Greek Gnostic term "homoousios" [Jesus & God of
"same substance"]; God is 1 genus of ousia [substance] yet 3 distinct
species of hypostases [hidden spiritual realities?] of Father, Son, Holy
Spirit; compiled "Hexapla": 6 versions of Jewish Scriptures side by side:
Hebrew MT, Hebrew transliterated into Greek, Aquila's Greek translation,
Symmachus' Greek translation, Origen's revised LXX, Theodotion's revised
LXX; also Quinta/Sexta/Septima translations; Tetragrammaton in square
Hebrew script; cited "Alexandrian" & "Caesarean" NT text-types; [ANF,v.4,10]
According to Eusebius [EH6.8.1-3] Origen castrated himself for Christ due
to Mt19:12 & disputed authenticity of Pauline Letters {Paul ... did not
so much as write to all the churches that he taught; & even to those to
which he wrote he sent but a few lines.} [EH6.25.7(Loeb)]
257: Visigoths & Ostrogoths invaded Black Sea area, Franks invaded Spain
258: Cyprian: bishop of Carthage, pagan convert, claimed Christians freely
forged his letters to discredit him, cited "Western" NT text-type [ANF,v.5]
260-268: Gallienus: Roman Emperor, reversed Valerian, restored Church, assass.
260-268,269-274,275-283-296: Popes Dionysius - Felix I - Eutychian - Gaius
264-268: Council of Antioch: condemned Paul of Samosata: bishop of Antioch &
founder of Adoptionism (Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his
baptism); also condemned use of Gnostic term "homoousios" (see 325)
265-316: Western Jin (Chin) dynasty of reunited China: compass invented in 271
265: Dionysius the Great: b.200?, bishop of Alexandria [ANF,v.6]
267-272: Septimia Zenobia: Queen of Palmyra, controlled Egypt 269-272
268: Goths sacked Athens, Sparta, Corinth ...
268-270-270: Claudius II (plague) - Quintillus (suicide): Roman Emperors
270-275: Aurelianus: Roman Emperor, restitutor orbis, vigorously promoted Sol
Invictus sun-god (continued by Probus & early Constantinus) & festival dies
natalis Solis Invicti (birthday of Invincible Sun) on Dec 25, dedicated Sol
Invictus Temple in 274Dec25, made Sol the official religion & principle
patron of the empire, assassinated; {Besides, the Sol Invictus had been a-
dopted by the Christians in a Christian sense, as demonstrated in the Christ
as Apollo-Helios in a musoleum (c.250) discovered beneath St. Peter's in the
Vatican.} {indeed, from the beginning of the 3d century "Sun of Justice" ap-
pears as a title of Christ} [New Catholic Encyclopedia,v.4,p.227,v.3,p.656]
270: Plotinus: b.205, Egyptian philosopher, founded Neo-Platonism, Doctrine of
3 Primal Hypostases: 1 [To Hen], Mind [Nous], Soul [Psyche]; yet the 1
transcends hypostasis, is prior to hypostasis & beyond being; Loeb:7v(Greek)
c275: Papyrus 47: Chester Beatty 3, c. Sinaiticus, Rv9:10-11:3,5-16:15,17-17:2
276-293-302-309: Bahram II - Narses - Hormizd II: Persian Emperors, decline
276-276-276-282-283: Tacitus - Florianus - Probus - Carus; Roman Emperors
277: Mani: b.216, crucified?, founded Manichaean Christian sect in Persia
280: Anatolius of Alexandria: b.230, bishop of Laodicea [ANF,v.6]
283: Carinus: Western Roman Emperor; Numerianus: Eastern Roman Emperor
284-305May1: Diocletianus: Roman Emperor, notorious persecutor of Christians,
in 286 divided empire into West & East, in 293 divided each into 2 admini-
strative units, in 303-312 "Diocletian's Massacre" edict against Christians
285: Pappus of Alex. described 5 machines: cogwheel/lever/pulley/screw/wedge
286-310: Maximanus: Roman Emperor, co-Augustus, father of Maxentius, suicide
293-311May: Galerius: Roman Emperor, co-Caesar with Constantius I
293-306Jul25: Constantius I: Roman Emperor, co-Caesar, father of Constantinus
294: Codex Gregorianus: compilation of Roman Law
296-c304: Pope Marcellinus: apostate, offered pagan sacrifice for Diocletianus
c300: Bohairic Coptic cop(bo) Bible translations written in Alexandria
c300: Hesychius of Alex.: martyr, translated Hebrew OT to Greek, lost [Jerome]
c300: Kama Sutra: doctrine of sacred sex by Vatsayan Mallagana of Benares
c300: Katayayana: compilation of Indian Law
c300: Paris Magical Papyrus: compilation of writings on magic in Greek
c300: Ch'en Cho: Chinese astronomer, also Kan Te/Shih Shen/Wu Hsien of c350bce
c300: Papyrus Berlin Codex of Greek Genesis; Papyrus Bodmer 24 of Greek
Psalms; Codex Freer of Greek Minor Prophets; all published in 1927
c300: other 3rd century NT witnesses: P1:Mt1:1-9,12,14-20 P4:Lk1:58-59,62-2:1,
6-7;3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35;5:3-8,30-6:16 P5:Jn1:23-31,33-40;16:14-30;20:11-17,
19-20,22-25 P9:1Jn4:11-12,14-17 P12:Hb1:1 P15:1Cr7:18-8:4 P20:Jm2:19-3:9
P22:Jn15:25-16:2,21-32 P23:Jm1:10-12,15-18 P27:Rm8:12-22,24-27,33-9:3,5-9
P28:Jn6:8-12,17-22 P29:Ac26:7-8,20 P30:1Th4:12-13,16-17;5:3,8-10,12-18,25-28
;2Th1:1-2 P38:Ac18:27-19:6,12-16 P39:Jn8:14-22 P40:Rm1:24-27,31-2:3;3:21-4:8
;6:4-5:16;9:16-17:27 P48:Ac23:11-17,23-29 P49:Ep4:16-29,31-5:13 P53:Mt26:29-
40;Ac9:33-10:1 P65:1Th1:3-2:1,6-13 P69:Lk22:41,45-48,58-61 P70:Mt2:13-16,22-
3:1;11:26-27;12:4-5;24:3-6,12-15 P80:Jn3:34 P87:Pm13-15,24-25
#0171:Mt10:17-23,25-32;Lk22:44-56,61-64 #0189:Ac5:3-21 #0220:Rm4:23-5:3,8-13
#0212(Diatessaron):Mt27:56-57;Mk15:40-42;Lk23:49-51,54;Jn19:38
c301: Christianity state religion of Armenia by Saint Gregory the Illuminator
304: Porphyry: b.233, Neoplatonic philosopher, wrote: "Adversus Christianos"
306-337May22: Emperor Constantinus the Great: saw a vision in the sun of a
cross with the words "by this sign conquer": in 312Oct28 invaded Rome & de-
feated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge; in 313Feb decreed "Edict of Milan" with
Licinianus which ended religious persecutions; in 314 called Council of
Arles against Donatus; in 315 erected Arch of Constantine; in 321 decreed
SUNday (dies Solis) as Roman day of rest [CJ3.12.2]; in 324 defeated & exe-
cuted Licinianus & became sole Emperor; in 325May-Aug called Council of
Nicaea, 1st Ecumenical, c300 bishops decreed 20 canons, Constantine proposed
condemned Gnostic term (264) "homoousios" (Jesus & God of SAME substance)
causing "Homoiousians" schism (Jesus & God of LIKE substance) led by Meleti-
us of Antioch, Cyril of Jerusalem & Basil of Ancyra, by June19 still 18
bishops refused to sign but under Constantine's threats only Arius, Secundus
& Theonas held out & were exiled; in 330May11 moved capital to Constantino-
ple (formerly Byzantium); converted to Christianity on deathbed
306-308: Pope Marcellus I: tried removing prior Pope Marcellinus from official
records for apostasy, exiled from Rome by Maxentius for disturbing the peace
306: Council of Elvira: prohibited eating/marriage/sex between Christian & Jew
309-379: Shapur II the Great: Persian Emperor, regained lost ground from Rome,
ordered "Avesta" compilation of Zoroastrian texts back to c. 1,000bce
310: Pope Eusebius: deported to Sicily with antipope Heraclius by Maxentius
311-314: Pope Miltiades: given Fausta's palace as papal residence by Constan-
tinus; excommunicated Donatus in 313 for requiring rebaptism of apostates
312: Lucian: founded Exegetical School of Antioch, revised LXX, martyred
312: Methodius: Early Church Father, martyred [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,v.6]
314-335,336,337-352-366: Popes Silvester I - Mark - Julius I - Liberius
316-589: Tartar invasion of northern (Wei) China
317-420: Eastern Jin (Chin) dynasty of China: capital at Nanking, Tartar
advance halted at Battle of Fei Shui in 383
320-335: Chandragupta I: founded Gupta dynasty of northern India (320-495)
c320: Lactantius: b.250?, Early Christian Church Father [ANF,v.7]
c325: Fayyumic Coptic cop(mf) translation fragment of John 6:11-15:11
325-900: Teotihuacan: ancient Mexican city
330: Iamblichus: b.245, Syrian Neoplatonic philosopher
334-365: Codex Hermogenianus: compilation of Roman Law
335-376-414: Samudragupta - Chandragupta II: Gupta dynasty of northern India
335: Council of Jerusalem: reversed Council of Nicaea's condemnation of Arius,
on Sep17 consecrated Jerusalem Church of the Holy Sepulchre
336: Arius: b.256?, Greek theologian, Arianism: Father only true God [Jn17:3],
Jesus firstborn of all creation [Col1:15], Logos (Word) was created [Pr8:22]
337-361Nov3: Constantius II: Emperor of East at 21, Arianism official state
religion, in 353 defeated Magnentius, supported antipope Felix II (355-365),
in 356Feb19 closed all Pagan Temples, first tour of Rome in 357Apr28
337-350: Constans: co-Emperor of West @14, killed in Revolt of Magnentius
337-340Mar: Constantinus II: co-Emperor of West @20, killed by Constans
338: Judaism standardizes 19-year cycle lunisolar calendar
c339: Eusebius: b.260?, bishop of Caesarea, cited "Caesarean" NT text-type,
wrote: "Ecclesiastical History" (EH); (Loeb Classics: 2 volumes, Greek);
quoting Papias bishop of Hierapolis (c130): {"& the Presbyter <John the
Elder> used to say this, 'Mark became Peter's interpreter & wrote
accurately all that he remembered, not, indeed, in order, of the things said
or done by the Lord. For he had not heard the Lord, nor had he followed him,
but later on, as I said, followed Peter, who used to give teaching as
necessity demanded but not making, as it were, an arrangement of the Lord's
oracles, so that Mark did nothing wrong in thus writing down single points
as he remembered them. For to 1 thing he gave attention, to leave out
nothing of what he had heard & to make no false statements in them.'" This
is related by Papias about Mark, & about Matthew this was said, "Matthew
collected the oracles in the Hebrew language <Aramaic>, & each interpreted
them as best he could."}[EH3.39.14-16(Loeb)]; Eusebius' NT Canon [EH3.3,25]:
Recognized: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 10 Pauline Letters, 1-2Tim, Tit, 1Pt, 1Jn;
Disputed: Didache, Barnabas, Hermas, Diatessaron, Jewish-Christian Gospels,
Hebrews, Acts of Paul, James, 2Pt, 2-3Jn, Jude, Rev, Apocalypse of Peter
Rejected: Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of Andrew, John ...
343: Council of Sardica: decreed 20 canons (laws)
343: Ko Hung: b.283, Chinese alchemist, immortality pills, wrote Pao-p'u-tzu
c350: Papyrus Antinoopolis: of Book of Proverbs in Greek, published in 1950
c350: Papyrus Bodmer 45-46: Greek Susanna, Daniel 1:1-20 (Theodotion's LXX)
c350: Akhmimic cop(ac) & Sub-Akhmimic cop(ac2) Coptic translations of John
c350: Ulfilas: apostle to the Goths (Germans), translated Greek NT to Gothic
c350: Nag Hammadi Codices: Coptic Gnostic Library, 12 papyrus codices, 1945
c350: Old Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels: Syr(s) & Syr(c), of "Western" text-type
c350: Canon Muratorian: 4 Gospels, Acts, 10 Pauline Letters, 1-2Tim, Titus,
1-2Jn, Jude, Wisdom; disputes 3Jn, Rev, Apoc. of Peter, Hermas [ANF,v.5]
c350: Doctrine of Addai: Syriac account of founding of Christianity in Edessa
by Addai (=Thaddeus); Canon of Diatessaron,Acts,10Paul,1-2Tim,Tit,Heb,3Cor
c350: Papyrus Chester Beatty: #4:R961: Greek Gn9:1-44:22; #11: Greek Sir36:28-
37:22,46:6-47:2; #12: Greek Enoch93:12-13,94:7-8,97:6-104:13,106:1-107:3
c350: Codex Sinaiticus (S or <ALEPH>): earliest Christian Bible,
(LXX - 2-3Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon + 27NT + Barnabas + Hermas),
missing Hermas31.7-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
c350: Codex Vaticanus (B): earliest Christian Bible (LXX - Maccabees - Psalms
of Solomon + 23NT???), missing Gn1-46:28, Ps105:27-137:6, 1Tm-Phm,
Heb9:14-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
c350: Comma Johanneum: "in heaven, the Father, the Word, & the Holy Ghost: &
these 3 are 1. & there are 3 that bear witness in earth," [1Jn5:7b-8a(KJV)];
1st found in Latin book "Liber Apologeticus" by Gnostic Priscillian, found
in only 4 Greek manuscripts!, none prior to 11th century! [Epis.John,Brown]
357: 2nd Council "Blasphemy" of Sirmium: condemned Council of Nicaea (Anomean)
359: Double Council of Rimini-Seleucia: Dated Creed (Homoean)
360: Huns invaded Europe, scrolls began to be replaced by books (Codex)
c360: Canon Cheltenham: (aka Mommsen's), claimed 24OT+24NT based on Rev4:4:
OT,Ps151,Tobit,Judith,1-2Mac,4Gospels,Acts,10Paul,1-2Tim,Tit,1-2Pt,1-3Jn,Rev
361-363Jun26: Emperor Julianus "the Apostate": Pagan revival; (Loeb:3v, Greek)
363-364Feb: Jovianus: Roman Emperor, lost Armenia to Shapur II of Persia
364-375Nov17: Valentinian I: Emperor of West, appointed brother Valens to East
364-378Aug9: Valens: Emperor of East, Arian, tolerant of Pagans & Jews
365: Acacius: bishop of Caesarea, Homoeans: Son is homoios (like) Father
c365: Council of Laodicea: in Phrygia; decreed 59 canons: #16 (p.133): The
Gospels are to be read on the Sabbath [i.e. Saturday], with the other
Scriptures. #29 (p.148): Christians must not judaize by resting on the Sab-
bath, but must work on that day, rather honouring the Lord's Day; &, if they
can, resting then as Christians. But if any shall be found to be judaizers,
let them be anathema from Christ. + #60 (p.159): KJV Canon +Baruch +Epistle
of Jer. -Rev.[Nicene & Post-N. Fathers:7 Ecum. Councils,2ndS.,v.14,Eerdmans]
366Sep-367Nov: antipope Ursinus: leader of supporters of former Pope Liberius
366Oct1-384Dec11: Pope Damasus I: hired thugs to massacre rival Ursinians
(Liberians), in 382 called Council of Rome which rejected 381 Council of
Theodosius (not accepted till Lyons II in 1274), had Jerome begin Latin
Bible revision, decreed Canon of OT,Tobit,Judith,Wisdom,Sirach,1-2Macc,27NT?
[disputed]; in 384 Jerome presented new Latin Gospels, originals lost
367-383Aug25: Gratianus: Emperor of West, hunted pagans with Ambrose, assassi.
370: Aetius: Christian bishop, Syntagmation: "God is agennetos (unbegotten)"
373: Athanasius: b.295, bishop of Alexandria, condemned at 335Jul Council of
Tyre, called 362 Council of Alexandria, decreed God is 3 hypostases, in 367
Festal Letter 39 decreed Canon of OT,Baruch,EpJer,Tobit,Judith,Wisdom,
Sirach,Didache,Hermas,27NT [NPNF,s2,v4]
375-387,388-392May15: Valentinian II: Emperor of West at age 4!, assassinated
376: Photinus: bishop of Sirmium: Jesus was a man adopted by the Father as Son
379-395Jan17: Theodosius the Great: last united Roman Emperor, in 381May-July
called Council at Constantinople, 2nd Ecumenical, against Bishop Macedonius,
decreed 4-7 canons?; in 390 declared Nicene Christianity official state
religion on Feb27, Riot & Massacre at Thessalonica, performed public penance
for on Dec25; in 391 anti-Pagan Edicts such as purges of non-Christian works
at Library of Alexandria; in 393 halted Olympics
c379: Basil the Great: b.330?, bishop of Caesarea; (Loeb Classics 4v, Greek)
c380: Canon 85: of Apostolic Constitutions (see 250-350): OT, Judith, Sirach,
1-3Macc, Didache, 1-2Clement, 26NT (exc. Rev), lists itself also [ANF,v.7]
384Dec-399Nov26,27-401Dec19: Popes Siricius (criticized Jerome) - Anastasius I
385: Tao-an: b.312, Chinese Buddhist philosopher
386: Cyril: archbishop of Jerusalem, cited "Caesarean" text-type [NPNF,s2,v7]
390: Apollinaris of Laodicea: b.310, Jesus is human body & divine spirit
394: Council of Constantinople: called by Bishop Nectarius
395-410: Alaric: Visigoth King, sacked Athens in 396, Rome on 410Aug14
395-408: Arcadius: Eastern Roman Emperor, father of Theodosius II
395: Ausonius: b.310?, Christian governor of Gaul; (Loeb Classics 2v, Latin)
c395: Ammianus Marcellinus: b.330?, Christian historian, wrote: "Res gestae"
397: Ambrose: b.339?, bishop & governor of Milan, wrote: "de Fide" ...
397: Ling-pao ching wrote "Book of the Sacred Jewel", Taoist philosophy
399-421-459: Yazdigird I - Bahram V: Persian Emperors
400-600: era of "aggressive forgeries" in Christian texts [Grant,JTS,1960]
c400: Palestinian Talmud (Mishnah (Oral Law) + Gemara (Mishnah commentary))
c400: Pericope of the Adulteress: John 7:53-8:11, added to Bible [Jerome,(D)]
c400: Codex Vercellensis it(a): Latin Gospels, of "European" text-type
c400: Ethiopic Bible: in Ge'ez, 81 books, standard Ethiopian Christian Bible
c400: Peshitta Bible: Syriac (Aramaic) Vulgate, Syr(p), OT + 22NT, excludes:
2Pt, 2-3Jn, Jude, Rev; Peshitta becomes standard Syrian Christian Bible
c400: Vulgate Bible: (Hebrew OT ->Latin, Greek NT ->Latin), by Jerome? (c419),
originals lost, Vulgate Latin Text becomes standard Roman Catholic Bible
c400: early Christian Canon Law: in Greek, 20 from Nicaea (325), 25 from
Ancyra (314), 15 from Neocaesarea (315), 20 from Gangra (c325), 25 from
Antioch (341), 59 from Laodicea (c365) [NPNF:7 Ecumenical Councils]
c400: Codex Bobiensis it(k): c. half of Mt/Mk in Latin, "African" (Carthage)
text-type, has "shorter" ending of Mark after Mk16:8: {But they reported
briefly to Peter & those with him all that they had been told. & after this
Jesus himself sent out by means of them, from east to west, the sacred &
imperishable proclamation of eternal slavation.} [Text.Com., Metzger, p.123]
c400: Jerome cited "expanded" ending of Mark found in (W) after Mk16:14: {&
they excused themselves, saying, "This age of lawlessness & unbelief is
under Satan, who does not allow the truth & power of God to pervail over the
unclean things of the spirits [or does not allow what lies under the unclean
spirits to understand the truth & power of God]. Therefore reveal thy right-
eousness now" - thus they spoke to Christ. & Christ replied to them, "The
term of years of Satan's power has been fulfilled, but other terrible things
draw near. & for those who have sinned I was delivered over to death, that
they many inherit the spirtual & incorruptible glory of righteousness which
is in heaven."} [A Textual Commentary on the Greek NT, Bruce Metzger, p.124]
401-417: Pope Innocent I: decreed Roman Custom the norm for Roman Catholicism,
in Letter #6 (to Exuperius) listed Canon of OT,Tobit,Judith,1-2Macc,27NT
403: Epiphanius: b.315, bishop of Salamis, Cyprus; in 370 cited Canon of OT,
Baruch, Epistle of Jeremiah, Wisdom, Sirach, 27NT [Heresies 8.6, 76.5 ...]
405-411: Fa-hsien: Chinese Buddhist, visited India
c405: Prudentius: b.348, greatest Christian Latin poet; (Loeb Classics: 2v)
406-428: Gunderic: Vandal King, allied with Alans & Sciri invaded Spain in 409
406-407: Franks invaded Gaul, Romans retreated from Britain (begun in 383)
406: Armenian Bible: translated by St. Mesrop [Life of Mesrop]
407: Saint John Chrysostom: of Antioch, famous anti-Semite [NPNF]
408-450: Theodosius II: Eastern Roman Emperor at 7, in 431Jun-Aug called
Council of Ephesus, 3rd Ecumenical, against Patriarch Nestorius (451),
decreed 6-8 canons?, Mary is "Mother of God" (Theotokos) [cf. Artemis of
Ephesus]; in 438 ordered "Codex Theodosianus" compilation of Roman Law; in
449Aug called "Robber" Council of Ephesus (Monophysite)
c408: Claudian: b.370?, Alexandrian Latin poet: "Rape of Prosperine" ; Loeb:2v
412: Visigoths under Ataulf invaded France, in 416 Spain
413: Kumarajira: b.334, Chinese Buddhist philosopher
414-454: Kumaragupta I: Gupta dynasty of northern India, invaded by White Huns
414: Sheng-chao: b.384, Chinese Buddhist philosopher, wrote: "Chao-lun"
415Mar: Saint Cyril Archbishop of Alexandria: d.444, had monks murder woman
philosopher & mathematician Hypatia by scraping off skin with oyster shells;
expelled Jews; persecuted Novatianists; [Gibbon's Decline & Fall, v2, p816];
coined "hypostatic union": Christ is 2 phuseis [2-natures] yet 1 hypostasis
c416: C.R. Namatianus: last Pagan Latin poet, wrote: "de Reditu Suo"
417: Hui-yuan: b.334, Chinese Buddhist philosopher
417-418-422-432-440: Popes Zosimus - Boniface I - Celestine I - Sixtus III
418Dec27-419Apr3: antipope Eulalius
c419: Saint Jerome: S.E. Hieronymus, b.347?, Christian Latin Scholar; (Loeb)
c425: Philostorgius: Greek Church Historian: Ecclesiastical History c325-425
c425: "Way to Purity": Buddhist doctrine written by Buddhaghosa of Ceylon
c427: Ashi: head of Sura Yeshiva, "Rabbana", began compilation of Bab. Talmud
428-c460: Gaiseric: Vandal King, Arian?, invaded N. Africa in 429, Hippo in
430, Carthage in 439Oct29, brutal sack "vandalism" of Rome in 455
429: Picts, Scots, Celts expelled from southern England by Anglo-Saxon-Jutes
430Aug28: St. Augustine of Hippo: b.354, Gnostic (Manichaean) convert to Chri-
stianity, origin of "Original Sin", in 393 called Council of Hippo, decreed
Pope Damasus' Canon [NPNF,s2,v14], in 394-419 called Council of Carthage,
decreed 138 canons (laws); wrote: City of God, Confessions; Loeb:10v(Latin)
431: Syrian Christianity split into East (Nestorians) & West (Jacobites)
432: Saint Patrick: 385-461, "Apostle of Ireland", began mission to Ireland
434-453: Attila: b.406?, King of the Huns, "Scourge of the Gods"
434: Chu Tao-sheng: b.360?, Chinese Buddhist philosopher
440-461-468-483-492: Popes Leo I the Great - Hilarus - Simplicius - Felix III
450-457: Marcian: Eastern Roman Emperor, in 451Oct-Nov called Council of
Chalcedon, 4th Ecumenical, condemned Council of Ephesus of 449, decreed 8-30
canons?, Nicene Creed ..., God is 1 ousia [substance] yet 3 hypostases
[hidden spiritual realities?], Pope Leo I's Tome of 449: Christ is 2 phuseis
[2-natures: 1 fully human & 1 fully divine] yet 1 hypostasis (compromise
solution of Jesus god/man schisms); yet in 453 Pope Leo I rejected canons of
Chalcedon, not accepted till Lyons II in 1274
c450: Mark's Resurrection of Jesus: Mark 16:9-20, added to Bible [(A),(D)]
c450: Socrates: Greek Church Historian, wrote: Ecclesiastical History 305-439
c450: Sozomen: Greek Church Historian, wrote: Ecclesiastical History 324-439
c450: Chief Hawai'i-Loa of Raiatea discovered Hawai'ian Islands
c450: Codex Alexandrinus (A): (LXX + 14_Church_Odes + 27NT + 1-2Clement),
missing 1K12:17-14:9, Ps49:20-79:11, Psalms of Solomon, Mt1-25:6, Jn6:50-
8:52, 2Cr4:13-12:6, 1Clement57.7-63.4, 2Clement12.5b-end; "Alexandrian" type
c450: Codex Bezae (D): Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus (W):
Greek Gospels; both of "Western" text-type: "fondness for paraphrase"
c450: Codex Ephraemi Syri rescriptus (C): Greek LXX + 27NT, many gaps
c450: Codex Marchalianus (Q): Greek LXX + Luke + John, many gaps
c450: Codex Ambrosianus (F): Gk Gen-Josh; Codex Freer: Gk Deut. & Joshua
c450: Codex Colberto-Sarravianus: Origen's Greek Hexapla LXX of Gen-Judg
c450: Codex Palatinus it(e): Latin Gospels, "African" (Carthage) text-type
c450: Codex Veronensis it(b): Latin Gospels, "European/Vulgate" text-type
c450: Syr(pal): Palestinian Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, of "Caesarean" text-type
c450: std. Aramaic Targums: T. Onkelos of Torah, T. Jonathan of Prophets
c450: Bodhidharma: founded Zen Buddhism in India, brought to China
451: Battle of Avarayr: Persia defeated Armenia, tried to force Zoroastrianism
451: Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople: Mary was *not* "Mother of God" &
Christ is 2 phuseis [2-natures] & 2 hypostases [hidden spiritual realities?]
452-456-479-539-571: Anko - Yuryaku - Senka - Kinmei: Japanese Emperors
452: Eutyches of Constantinople: Monophysites: Jesus Christ is 1 divine nature
454-467,475-495: Skandagupta - Budhagupta: Gupta dynasty of northern India
455: Chichen Itza: founded by Mayans on Yucatan Peninsula
457-474: Leo I: Eastern Roman Emperor
458-481: Childeric I: Frank King, father of Clovis I
459-484-531-579: Peroz - Kavadh I - Khusrau I: Persian Emperors
476Aug28: Official End of Roman Empire; last Emperor: Romulus Augustulus
476-491: Zeno the Isaurian: founded Byzantine Empire (476-1453); in 482 de-
creed Patriarch Acacius' "Henotikon" against Pope Leo's "2-natures" caus-
ing Acacian Schism till 519; in 489 destroyed Nestorian school at Edessa
481-511Nov11: Clovis I: Frank King, capital Paris, Roman Catholic in 496
483: Christian Council of Persia adopted Nestorian (451) doctrine
491: Armenian Church seceded from Byzantine & Roman Churches
491-518Jul9-527Aug1: Anastasius I - Justinus I: Byzantine Emperors
492Mar1-496Nov21: Pope Gelasius I: first "Vicar of Christ" [495May13]
493-526Aug30: Theodoric the Great: b.454?, Ostrogoth King of Italy
496-498-514-523-526: Popes Anastasius II - Symmachus - Hormisdas - John I
498Nov22-499Feb,501-506: antipope Lawrence: Lawrentian schism
498: Nestorians (451) settled in Nisibis, Persia
c500: Codex Sangallensis vg<SIGMA>: earliest extant Latin Vulgate, Gospels
c500: Codex Argenteus (got): earliest nearly complete Gothic (German), Gospels
c500: Codex Cottonianus: Greek Genesis
c500: Susrata: Indian medical book compiled
502: Narsai of Mealletha: Syrian poet, headed Nestorian school @ Nisibis (498)
513: Mt. Vesuvius erupts again (see 79)
516-524: Sigismund: Burgundian King, left Arianism for Roman Catholicism
520: Institutionis Grammaticae: Latin grammar by Priscianus of Constantinople
524-532: Godomar: Burgundian King, overrun by Franks
525: Dionysius Exiguus set Christian calendar (a.d.) & Jesus birth at 1ceDec23
525: Boethius: b.475?, Roman Catholic philosopher, wrote: "Theological
Tractates", "Consolation of Philosophy"; (Loeb Classics, Latin)
526-530-532-535-536-537: Popes FelixIV-BonifaceII-JohnII-AgapitusI-Silverius
526-534-541: Athalaric - Hildebad: Ostrogoth Kings of Italy
526: major earthquake hits Antioch killing c. 250,000
527-565Nov14: Justinianus the Great: Byzantine Emperor, empire reached largest
size, persecuted Pagans & Jews; in 529 closed 900 year old Athens Academy of
Philosophy; in 529-535 ordered "Corpus juris civilis" compilation of Roman
Law by Tribonian; in 532Jan Nika Riot of Blues & Greens; in 533 Belisarius
captured N. Africa from Vandals & in 535 began reconquest of Italy; Council
of Clermont excluded Jews from public office; in 536Dec9 Belisarius captured
Rome, held till 546 when Totila the Ostrogoth King (541-552) starved last
c500 residents into submission; in 537Dec27 dedicated Hagia Sophia; in 538
Council of Orleans required Jews to remain indoors during "Passion Week"; in
540 Persians sacked Antioch & took Syria, Ostrogoths retook Italy; in 542-
594 plague, *halved* population of Europe!; in 543 condemned Origen, disas-
trous world earthquakes; in 544 condemned "3 Chapters" of Theodore of Mop-
suestia (d.428) & other "2-natures" Christology of Pope Leo's 449 Tome; in
552-554 Narses defeated Ostrogoths & retook Italy; in 552 sent Christian
missionaries to China & Ceylon to get silkworm; in 553May-Jul called 2nd
Council of Constantinople, 5th Ecumenical; decreed "Theopaschite Formula"
530: antipope Dioscorus: was elected but P. Felix IV designated P. Boniface II
537Mar29-555Jun7: Pope Vigilius: involved in death of P. Silverius, conspired
with Justinianus & Theodora, in June 547 issued "Iudicatum" supporting
Justinianus' anti-"2-natures", excommunicated at Council of Carthage in 550!
537: King Arthur of the Britons killed in Battle of Camlan, myth?
543: Yu p'ien: Chinese phonetic dictionary using Fan ch'ieh system
546: Codex Fuldensis vg(F): Latin Vulgate, 27NT + Epistle to Laodiceans (c100)
550-1453: Medieval Greek of Constantinople (Byzantium) became standard Greek
550: Byzantine Greek Text: Greek Orthodox Bible, much smoothing & conflation
550: St. David converted Wales to Christianity, crucifix became Christian icon
550: Toltecs invaded Yucatan Peninsula & conquered Teotihuacan civilization
c550: Codex Mediolanensis vg(M): Latin Vulgate Gospels
c550: Codex Veronensis: Greek & Old Latin Psalms
c550: "Book of Taliesin": Welsh poems by Taliesin
c550: Codex Claromontanus (Dp): Greek/Latin Pauline Letters, includes Canon
of c350: OT,Tobit,Judith,Wisdom,Sirach,1-2-4Macc,Barnabas,Hermas,4 Gospels,
Acts,7 Pauline Letters (excludes Philippians & 1-2Thess),1-2Tim,Tit,Acts of
Paul,James,1-2Pt,1-3Jn,Jude,Rev,Apocalypse of Peter; "Western" text-type
556-561: Pope Pelagius I: selected by Justianianus, endorsed "Iudicatum"
558-561,584-629-639Jan9: Clotaire I - Clotaire II - Dagobert I: Frank Kings
561Jul17-574Jul13: Pope John III: authorized by Justianianus
565-578-582-602-610: JustinII-TiberiusII-Maurikios-Phocas: Byzantine Emperors
568-774: Lombards invaded Italy, converted to Roman Catholicism in 589
571-585-587-592: Bintas - Yomei - Sushun: Japanese Emperors
575Jun2-579Jul30: Pope Benedict I: authorized by Justin II
579-590-604Mar12: Popes Pelagius II (died of plague) - Gregory I the Great
c580: Cassiodorus: Roman Senator, founded Monasteries, translated Greek->Latin
586-601: Recared: Visigoth King of Spain, left Arianism for Roman Catholicism,
in 589 called 3rd Council of Toledo, Filioque added to Latin Nicene Creed?
589-618: Sui dynasty of China: reunited China, Grand Canal, book printing, in
606 standard examinations for public office
590-628Apr3: Khusrau II: Persian Emperor, in 611-614 captured Antioch, Damas-
cus, Tarsus, Jerusalem, "Holy Cross of Christ", in 619 Egypt; assassinated
592-628: Suiko: Japanese Empress, Sinoization, Shitenno-ji Monastery @ Osaka,
Hoko Temple, Shotoku Taishi Law, Horyuji & Hokoji Temples at Nara ...
595: 1st authenticated record of decimal number system (0-9) appears in India
596: St. Augustine of Canterbury sent to convert England to Roman Catholicism
600: Babylonian Talmud (Mishnah(Oral Law) + Gemara(Mishnah commentary)); Ashi
600: Antara ibn Shaddad: 1 of 7 great Islamic poets
c600: Codex Harleianus vg(Z): Latin Vulgate Gospels
c600: Codex Philoxenian/Harclean Syr(ph/h): Syriac 27NT, "Western" text-type
c600: Vaghbata: Indian medical book compiled
601: Ch'ieh yun: Chinese phonetic dictionary of Northern Chinese dialect
604-606-607-615: Popes Sabinian-Boniface III-Boniface IV: authorized by Phocas
606-647: Harsavardhana of Kanauj: reunited northern India
610-641: Heraclius: Byzantine Emperor, in 627Dec12 defeated Persians @ Nineveh
& discovered Indian sugar cane, in 628 recovered "Holy Cross of Christ", in
629 defeated Muslims at Battle of Mu'ta & recovered Jerusalem till 638, in
636Aug15 defeated by Muslims in Syria at Battle of Yarmuk River, in 638
decreed Patriarch Sergius' "Ecthesis" (Monothelites: Christ of 1 will)
615-618,619-625: Popes Deusdedit - Boniface V: authorized by Heraclius
616: Syro-Hexaplar: Syriac translation of Origen's Hexapla Septuagint
618-907: Tang dynasty of China: inc. Korea/Manchuria/Mongolia/Tibet/Turkistan
619: Suan-Ching: "10 Classics", textbooks used for Chinese exams
625-638: Pope Honorius I: condemned at 6th Ecumenical in 680! (Monothelites)
625: Paulinus of Rome began conversion of Northumbria to Roman Catholicism
625: Brahmagupta: Indian mathematician, taught at Ujjain
626-633: King Edwin of Northumbria: founded Edinburgh, advocated R. Catholic.
628-641: Jomei: Japanese Emperor
632-651: Yazdigird III: last Sasanian Emperor of Persia, invaded by Islam
632Jun7: Muhammad: b.570?, Arab prophet, founded Islam, married widow Khadija
his benefactor, 1st disciple, 1st wife in 595, Mt.Hira vision in 610, began
preaching at Mecca in 612, earliest records of some of his teachings is 615,
expelled from Mecca, established following at Medina (Yathrib) in 622Jul16
= year 1 in Muslim lunar calendar: Hijra (Hegira) (a.h.=anno hegirae),
married 3rd wife Aisha daughter of Abu Bekr in 624, captured Mecca in Jihad
(Holy War) in 628, wrote to rulers of world in 630 ... Qur'an (Koran) ...
632-634Aug22: Abu Bekr: b.573, 1st Islamic Caliph, capital at Medina
632: East Anglia converted to Roman Catholicism, in 635 Wessex, in 636 Irish
634-644Nov4: 'Umar I: 2nd Islamic Caliph, capital at Damascus, in 634 con-
quered Syria, in 638 Jerusalem, in 639 Egypt, in 642 Persia; assassinated
640May28-Aug2: Pope Severinus
640: Library of Alexandria: "The Center of Western Culture," with 300,000
ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely destroyed.